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I don’t understand this Statistics question and need help to study.

1. Abnormalities In the 1980s, it was generally believed that congenital abnormalities affected about 5% of the nation’s children. Some people believe that the increase in the number of chemicals in the environment has led to an increase in the incidence of abnormalities. A recent study examined 384 children and found that 46 of them showed signs of an abnormality. Is this strong evidence that the risk has increased?

a) Write appropriate hypotheses.

b) Check the necessary assumptions and conditions.

c) Perform the mechanic s of the test. What is the P-value?

d) Explain carefully what the P-value mean s in context.

e) What ‘s your conclusion?

f) Do environmental chemicals cause congenital abnormalities?

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2. Educated mothers The National Center for Education Statistics monitors many aspects of elementary and secondary education nationwide. Their 1996 numbers are often used as a baseline to assess changes. In 1996, 31% of students reported that their mothers had graduated from college. In 2000, responses from 8368 students found that this figure had grown to 32%. Is this evidence of a change in education level among mothers?

a) Write appropriate hypotheses.

b) Check the assumptions and conditions.

c) Perform the test and find the P-value.

d) State your conclusion.

e) Do you think this difference is meaningful? Explain.

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