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I’m studying for my Health & Medical class and need an explanation.

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Social Cognitive Theory Model (SCT) are learned behavioral habits from observation and social interaction. The models state that human behavior is influenced by three major behavioral constructs and they are cognitive influences on behavior, environmental influences on behavior, and supporting behavioral factors (Glanz et al., 2015). Cognitive influences on behavior depicts the ability of processing information, then applying the knowledge, and changing preferences. There are four factors that describe this influential behavior and they are self-efficacy, collective efficacy, outcome expectations, and knowledge. Self-efficacy describes the confidence to perform a behavior due to the individuals’ mastery of experiences. Collective efficacy is the ability of a group working together to achieve an outcome through teamwork, shared goals, and communication. Outcome expectations are the outcomes from positive or negative actions, such as having sex without condoms, which increases the negative consequences of STD. Lastly, knowledge is the understanding of the risk that comes with the behavior and the benefits of certain health practices (Glanz et al., 2015).

Environmental influences describe aspects that affect behaviors such as physical and social factors in the environment. There are four factors that describe this influential behavior and they are observational learning, normative beliefs, social support, and barriers and opportunities. Observational learning is the act of learning a new behavior based on observation, such as role models, mass media, and celebrities. Normative beliefs are behavioral aspects based on cultural norms and beliefs, along with providing intervention methods in correcting normative beliefs. Social support is the support and encouragement an individual receives from their social network, such as offering to babysit for a mother who has a newborn. Lastly, Barriers and opportunities are social and physical elements that make behavior change harder or easier to perform (Glanz et al., 2015). Supporting behavioral factors are actions that lead to health-enhancing to improve health or health-compromising which leads to poorer health. There are three factors that describe this influential behavior and they are behavioral skills, intentions, and reinforcement and punishment. Behavioral skills are the abilities needed to achieve or perform a behavior such as playing sports to stay fit and healthy. Intentions are the modifications of new or old behavior such as setting a goal and working towards it. Lastly, there are reinforcement and punishments which influence behaviors through the removal and provision of rewards or punishment (Glanz et al., 2015).

Youths within a school have this normative belief that smoking is suitable because they observe their peers smoking and nothing is happening to them. Therefore, intervention methods need to be enacted to prevent adolescents from partaking in tobacco use. An example of this situation can be demonstrated by the SCT model. A research was done on influencing youths’ normative beliefs regarding smoking, such as grouping the children into a classroom and asking them to express the cons and pros of smoking. With this method, it is possible that the children can see for themselves the detrimental effect of smoking. Therefore, correcting any misconceptions and social norms regarding smoking (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012) (Glanz et al., 2015). Therefore, SCT states that environmental influences, such as normative belief can affect behavior through observation learning which is what the children did when they learned the pros and cons of smoking. Henceforth, this model is very appropriate and effective with the example because the model works to correct normative beliefs’ misperception to change behavior and improve health (Glanz et al., 2015). Another model that is effective is the transtheoretical model because it is a commonly used intervention method for smoking cessation by using its stages of change to alter behavioral change. The health belief model can also be used for this behavioral change because the models focus on motivation and self-efficacy (Roberts et al., 2013).

Reference

Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2015). Health behavior: Theory, research, and practice (5th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Roberts, J. N., Kerr, M. S., & Smith, S. (2012). Behavioral Interventions Associated with Smoking Cessation in the Treatment of Tobacco Use, Health Services Insights, 6, 79-85. Doi: 10.4137/HSI.S11092

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: Are port of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.


Respond to the bold paragraph ABOVE by using one of the option below… in APA format with At least two references and a minimum of 200 words….. .(The List of References should not be older than 2016 and should not be included in the word count.)

  • Ask a probing question.
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  • Offer and support an opinion.

  • Validate an idea with your own experience.
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Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the Learning Resources.

It is important that you cover all the topics identified in the assignment. Covering the topic does not mean mentioning the topic BUT presenting an explanation from the context of ethics and the readings for this class

To get maximum points you need to follow the requirements listed for this assignments 1) look at the word/page limits 2) review and follow APA rules 3) create subheadings to identify the key sections you are presenting and 4) Free from typographical and sentence construction errors.

REMEMBER IN APA FORMAT JOURNAL TITLES AND VOLUME NUMBERS ARE ITALICIZED.