no specific question, please respond to the 4 discussion posts (50-75 words each)

I need help with a Health & Medical question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post

HI150 Automation of Health Information


HIPAA breaches occur frequently and aren’t always widely known when they do happen. According to HHS, when a violation occurs there is a period where there is an attempted resolution through the entity that committed the infraction (HHS, 2020). The resolution will contain standards for the entity to change policy and make continued reports and communications with HHS regarding the new policy and procedure being followed. The resolution may or may not include a restitution amount.

The cases of breaches I found did not disclose if there was a restitution amount included. They all included new policy and procedure to amend the infractions that occurred. The infractions ranged from not giving a notice of privacy to using minimum necessary information when leaving messages for patients. All of the cases were resolved and had continued reporting to HHS regarding the new policy.

~Cortney Gardner~


A HIPAA breach is an impermissible disclosure under the Privacy Rule that compromises the security of privacy of the protected health information.

In the year 2019, there were a record number of ransomware attacks and vendor-related breaches. A total of41.4 million patient records were breached in the year 2019. This was a drastic increase as in 2018, just 15 million records were breached. 15 million too many in my book.

The largest breach on record yet happened in the state of Oregon, Magellan Health Data breach totaled 365,000 patients. The reason for this breach was due to a stolen laptop, unsure if it had been encrypted or not. This laptop held 654,000 patient names, contact information, dates of birth, and Medicaid ID numbers. (davis, 2020) The one fortunate piece of information was that health histories were not stored on this laptop.

Florida Orthopedic Institute reported a HIPAA breach consisting of 640,000 patient files. The exposure of this breach was found with malware encrypting data stored on FOI servers.

Penalties for noncompliance are based on the level of negligence. These penalties can range from $100-$50,000 per violation. There is a maximum penalty of $1.5 million per year for violations of an identical provision. These violations can also include criminal charges that may result in jail time. I understand the reason for the huge difference in penalty amounts and I agree with it. The punishment should fit the crime.

~Karen Skinner~

SC121: Human Anatomy and Physiology I

INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post


  • List the effects of secondhand smoke inhalation in children and adults.


  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Asthma
  • Bronchitis
  • Pneumonia
  • Ear infections
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)


  • Stroke
  • Lung cancer
  • Reproductive issues with low birth weight
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Do you feel that smokers should be allowed to smoke anywhere? Why or why not?

I feel they should have a designated area where they can smoke. People are going to do what they are going to do but if you have a designated area where they can go to smoke, the rest of us non-smokers can avoid the area to avoid the secondhand smoke risks.

  • Should smokers be prevented from smoking in their own homes or in their cars when children or any other non-smoker is present? Why or why not?

In my opinion, while driving a car there should be no smoking in the car with children or non-smokers. Just because the smoker has a bad habit does not mean the rest of the non-smokers need to suffer. As far as in someone’s home, it might be kind of hard to regulate what happens in the home when the doors are closed unless someone reports the individual smoking in the home. It is easier to spot someone who is smoking in a car than it is in the home. I do not believe people should be smoking in the home due to all the health risks.

    1. List any current state or local restrictions including fines that could be implemented for smoking in closed areas such as a car with a child present.

In Iowa, there was some legislation passed in 2008 by Governor Chet Culver called the Iowa Smoke-free Air Act (ISAA) that prohibits smoking in enclosed areas where people work as well as some outdoor areas. No smoking in bars, restaurants, and places of entertainment unless there is a designated area for smoking (Smokefree Air Act).

  • Would you allow the use of electronic cigarettes to be used in banned locations? Why or why not?

No because I feel like it will encourage smokers to want to smoke more and allowing electronic cigarettes in banned locations teaches children to break the law and may encourage underage usage.

  • Are electronic cigarettes or vapes a healthier alternative? Why or why not?

No, they are not a healthier choice because they still deliver nicotine, diacetyl, chemicals that cause cancer, volatile organic compounds, and heavy metals. Diacetyl is chemically linked to lung disease (Is Vaping Better Than Smoking?, 2018)

~Carrie Roller~


Good Afternoon Class and Professor,

Smoking is such a controversial topic. It especially is in our home as my boyfriend smokes and I cannot stand it one bit. He does not do it around me or our kids, but it still bothers me. Working in long term care I take care of a lot of residents right now who have chronic COPD since they used to smoke so much. We even have a lady who used to smoke 50 cigarettes a day! Not only does this affect you while your smoking, it also affects you later in life, and it also can have affects on children.

Secondhand smoke may seem like it is nothing and that it has no affect on the people around you. In reality, it has horrible affects on the people around you who are not even the ones choosing to smoke. According to the CDC some of the affects secondhand smoke can have on children is middle ear disease, SIDS, lower respiratory illness, and respiratory symptoms like impaired lung function. Heart disease is a huge problem that occurs in individuals exposed to secondhand smoke. 34,000 premature deaths happen due to heart disease, being exposed to secondhand smoke raises your chances of getting heart disease by 25-30% (CDC, 2020). Secondhand smoke is nearly as bad as smoking yourself, if not worst.

I do not think that smokers should be allowed to smoke anywhere. There should be designated areas for them. Not everyone wants to be exposed to secondhand smoke. If a smoker is around children, they really should not be allowed to smoke. Children have no say and we need to be there advocates to ensure they are safe and healthy. The affects secondhand smoke has on babies and children is severe and needs to be taken seriously. If I had it my way, I would make it to where adults would get fined for smoking around babies and children. If a smoker chooses to smoke in their home, I think they should make sure people know that they smoke in there home. Again, though if I had it my way, I would make it to where people could not smoke in their homes. In does nothing good for them and is worst when they sit inside and smoke. Especially if they have children in their homes.

There are currently eight states who have implemented that you can be fined for smoking in a car with a child under the age of 18 in some states and 16 in others to be fined. Those states include Arkansas, California, Louisiana, Maine, Oregon, Utah and Vermont and Virginia. Fines can range anywhere from $25.00 to $250.00 (Public Health Law Center, 2017). It is good that some of the states enforce this. Although, eight out of fifty states really are not that many. I hope that someday all the states come together, and nationwide get something in place to ban smoking in cars with children.

I feel that electronic cigarettes really are no better than a regular cigarette. Personally, I think that if you cannot smoke a regular cigarette somewhere you should not smoke an electric one either. My grandma started smoking when she was 11. When she was about 75, she was diagnosed with COPD and was told to quit smoking. She tried the electric cigarette and just did not like it, so she quit all together. They still do have some smoke that comes out of them so I still believe they should be smoked outside away from others.

Electric cigarettes and vaping are another controversial topic. Electric cigarettes probably not so much as vaping. Vaping I think is a super overrated thing that people do because they feel that it makes them look cool. Vaping is so bad for your system and may to some be looked at worst than smoking. According to Michael Joseph Blaha, 2020 vaping is not worst for you than smoking but still is not something you should do, as it has serious health issues as well. One of the biggest issues that Michael talks about is the fact that vaping is full of chemicals and many of them we do not know much about yet, or just which chemicals are in the different types of vaping products. They also recommend that you do not alter the vaping device and simply vape what it comes with. It can cause major issues with your lungs including wet lungs or popcorn lungs. When this happens with your lungs it basically sounds like you have popcorn in your lungs by the sound that it makes when you breathe.

All in all, smoking, vaping, and e cigarettes are all bad for you. Personally, I wish people did not smoke whatsoever and that they could find other ways to cope with stress and whatever other reasons they give as to why they smoke. I think that each person before picking up a cigarette or whatever device they choose should do a lot of research to understand what they are doing to their body and how harmful it really is.