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Answer the following four sets of questions, after reading the module pages and watching the videos. The main objective of this week’s module questions is to understand the issue of bias, and ‘implicit bias’ and ‘perspective’ and tease out the perspectives you see in the these two videos. There are big sets of questions here, separated with dividers with many questions in each number. These questions are to help you focus, identify details in the articles, and think and write. Write at least 150-200 words for each number. (You may end up writing a lot more for these analysis questions, but for each number, you should have at least 150 words). You should end up with 150-200 words on each one, and a total of 600-800 words. Grading: You need to write 1) the required word count to earn a passing grade on the weekly journal. 2) answer the questions completely. 3) Answer the questions accurately. 4) Give you own opinion and back it up with evidence (even your own experience is fine), examples and explanation. Look for the attached rubric for guidance.
1. Explain the issue of bias and implicit bias, and use at least two quotations from the readings on the module pages about media perspective and implicit bias.
2. The purpose of this next question is to help you learn the differnet types of news and to pay attention to and not ignore the publication. Make a list of four examples–one specific news article of each of the four types of news we learned about this week. One of Mainstream News, One of Political Analysis, One of Extreme Bias and One of State News. Choose specific articles, NOT the whole publication. THEN identify after each one, what is the type of news, and what is the perspective of that specific news source, and provide the link to one specific news item from that source. Format this as a list, and just write 1-2 sentences after each one to describe the perspective and purpose of the publication. Finally, explain the differences between mainstream news and more extreme types of news like “Extreme bias” and “State News.” Why do we need to be more careful when reading these two last types?
If you remember, there are eleven different types of media. In Module 3, I created a page for each one of the eleven types of media. I asked you to browse through those different pages, and now in Week 4, I have focused on four of these types. There is a page for each one in Module 4– Credible, Political Analysis, Extreme Bias and State News. These are the types, and if you go into these pages, you will find lists of various publications of each type. You need to use Google and look up examples using the names of the publications.
Example of what you should do:
Fox News (the publication)– mainstream, credible news (the type)– conservative leaning coverage, at times from a Republican perspective (the perspective and purpose)– “Sanders Hits Media, Atlantic” https://video.foxnews.com/v/6190353830001#sp=show-clips (Links to an external site.) (the specific article)
3. Questions for deeper analysis as you view the Walt Disney animation: Ethos, Pathos and Logos– After your analysis of each video, write 3-4 sentences about how each video uses the modes to appeal to ethos, pathos and/or logos.
- What are the linguistic mode elements in the video? Make a list. (language, speech, music lyrics, captions) What do they say and how do they enhance the irony of this piece?
- What are the visual mode elements in the video? Make a list. (Color scheme, color palette, lighting, style of the video (realistic or cartoon?) What objects do we see in the video? What are the “props” that the little pigs have in their hands? And what do they do with them? How do these objects symbolize each pig?
- What are the aural mode elements in this video? There is a LOT to talk about here. The songs, the song structure with verses and a chorus. What is the genre of this song? What musical style are the different singers using? What are the different voices that we hear, how are the different pigs voices used to portray each one differently? What are the sound effects that we hear?
- What are the spatial elements in this video? How does the cartoon recreate the scene of a beautiful peaceful countryside where the three pigs live? Notice the different spaces that are portrayed–the pigs outside and then the pigs inside their houses. Notice the various camera angles and movements.
- What are the gestural elements in this video? Gestures are body movements that characters make in certain situations, gestures that sometimes have official meaning (like raising your hand in a classroom), other times are more like everyday gestures that mean something because they are familiar to us (like stretching, yawning, dancing, playing a musical instrument, working, building a house). Notice the dancing moves. Lots of them!
4. Questions as you view the Guardian video: Ethos, Pathos and Logos– After your analysis of each video, write 3-4 sentences about how each video uses the modes to appeal to ethos, pathos and/or logos.
- What are the linguistic mode elements in the video? Make a list. (language, speech, flashing text on the screen, the use of television screens, captions, voice over, many people speaking at once.
- What are the visual mode elements in the video? Make a list. (Color scheme, color palette, lighting, style of the video (realistic or cartoon?) How is this video “paced?” Is it a slow, relaxed progression of elements of the story? Or do we get information thrown at us fast, and furiously from all directions, presented very chaotically? What objects do we see in the video? What are the “props” that the various characters have in their hands? And what do they do with them? How do these objects recreate specific scenes that tell us how media stories are created, circulated, publicized and used by politicians and activists to tell different stories?
- What are the aural mode elements in this video? Again, there is a lot to talk about here. What are the different voices that we hear, how are the different characters’s voices used to illustrate how a story can quickly become a rumor? What are the sound effects that we hear?
- What are the spatial elements in this video? How does the cartoon recreate the scene of the three pigs’s inner city apartment? Notice all the different spaces that are portrayed–the wolf’s friend on the bus, the pigs inside their filthy apartment, and then the pigs walking out the door as they are being arrested. Notice the various camera angles and movements. Notice again the way the information is flying at us chaotically from all over the screen, flashes of information, everything piled up and layers of text, images on top of images.
- What are the gestural elements in this video? Gestures are body movements that characters make in certain situations, gestures that sometimes have official meaning (like raising your hand in a classroom), other times are more like everyday gestures that mean something because they are familiar to us. Notice the way the media captures specific events and scenes in a standard way. The official public interview in the street. The interview with the “Wolf’s friend” on the bus. The portrayal of the three pigs as criminals as they are led down out of the house by the police.
Ethos, Pathos and Logos– QUESTIONS FOR GUIDANCE –you do NOT have to answer every single one of these below.
Review the definitions of ethos, pathos and logos. How does each video appeal to its audience using different means of appeal?
Pathos– How does the Disney animated feature appeal to pathos? How does it make us feel about this situation? How does it use storytelling to make us identify with the pigs and the wolf? Do you feel in any way like the pigs? Can we relate to this? How do we feel? Happy, excited? Nervous? Peaceful? How do the techniques of the different modes you described above help the video make us feel this way?
Pathos– How does the Guardian feature make you feel about this situation? It is created like a breaking news story, and like news, the purpose is to give the reader information and a sense of certainty and calm. Does this give you a sense of calm? Of certainty? Like you know what’s going on? What emotions does it make you feel? Who do you identify with in this short video? You could identify with many different characters. Do your feelings stay the same about the pigs throughout the video?
Ethos– How does the Disney animation appeal to ethos? What do we think of these three pigs? What are their motivations? Do they have good will and good intentions? Are the community leaders? How does it portray each little pig differently? Which pig has the most credibility? Which pig is the most trustworthy? Which pig is going to take care of you when danger and crisis are upon you? Who is the “smart” pig? Why? Who are the more vulnerable pigs? Why are they so much more vulnerable to the wolf than the third pig? What are the values of the smart pig? What are the values of the other two pigs? How is the Wolf portrayed? How do we know he is “Bad?”
Ethos — How does the Guardian feature portray the pigs? What do their motivations appear to be? Are these pigs the community leaders that the Disney little pigs were? Are they the good guys or the bad guys? How does the video give the Wolf more credibility? Which characters earn our sympathy and why? Do we sympathize with the three little pigs? Are they good like the Disney movie? How are they portrayed? How do the video techniques and different modes of communication make us feel this way about the characters?
Logos– What is the basic argument of the story of the Three Little Pigs? What is their vision? What is their proposal for life? What is the argument of the first little pig who builds his house of straw? What is the argument of the second little pig, who builds his house of sticks? What is the argument of the last little pig, who builds his house of bricks? Which plan will work? Which plan is the best? Do they provide evidence to support their plan? Which one would you hire as a contractor to build your house? Why?
Logos– What is the basic argument of the Guardian video? Is there an argument? Is there a clear sense of what is going on? How is evidence presented in this video? What kinds of data and evidence do we see on the screen? Is there a clear point of view? Is there a clear claim? Or are there many claims that are being made? What conventions of news coverage do we see in this video that look familiar to us from watching television news and breaking news coverage?