In your own words, a) Define robustness

In your own words, a) Define robustness. Robustness: Robustness is generally defined as the consistency of the phenotype despite environmental or genetic perturbation (Nijhout, 2002).

In your own words, a) Define robustness

In your own words, a) Define robustness.
Robustness:
Robustness is generally defined as the consistency of the phenotype despite environmental or genetic perturbation (Nijhout, 2002). This implies either insensitivity or resistance to such potential disruption.
b) Define plasticity.
During their development, individuals with the same genotype may respond to their environments in innumerable and sometimes qualitatively quite distinct ways
c) Explain how robustness and plasticity are dependent on each other.
Robustness and plasticity are not polar opposites. On the contrary, plasticity is often regulated by robust mechanisms, and robustness is often generated by mechanisms of plasticity
d) Provide an example explaining how they are dependent on each other.

2) Researchers wanted to study the genetic component of learning to herd sheep.

They knew that one breed of sheepdog (breed A) had the more championship wins than the other and believed that their genotype would consistently produce superior herding skills. In order to test this, researchers raised sheepdog breed A in three environmental conditions. One, the puppy had an enriched environment with extra attention; in another, the puppy had a normal environment with an average amount of attention. In the third environment, the puppy did not have any toys or much attention at all. The researchers also raised sheepdog breed B puppies – one in each possible environment. The researchers believed that the puppies from sheepdog breed A would ALWAYS outperform the sheepdog breed B puppies. Later, the researchers had the sheepdogs compete in a sheep herding challenge.

The researchers had proposed a “reaction range” hypothesis. From what we learned about predetermined epigenesis and probabilistic epigenesis, do you believe the researchers were correct? What do you think would be a likely outcome?

I don’t think the researcher were also correct, they already have the bias toward this research, they already assume the conclusion, so they will try to use the data to suit their conclusion. Probabilistic epigenesis variables matter most when interacting together, not just by themselves. There is a lot of variable in this research. Environment can be part of consideration, how the owner practicing with them, did the owner train them to herd the sheep. Also, pre-determined epigenesis for this dog is these kind of dog have high energy, so they will always want to exercise and activity.

3)  Dr. Gagneux described humans as “the paradoxical apes”.

a)  Explain what we mean by “humans as paradoxical apes”.
b)  Provide an example explaining how humans are similar to and different from other primates.

 

4)  The concept of a niche is foundational in many areas of HDS.

a)  Define the notion of the human ecological niche.

Non-biological inheritance system. • An institutional sphere devoted to the making of meaning. • Rapidly evolving. • Transmitted in all directions:
• Human biology: profoundly embedded in culture and shaped by culture.

b)  Identify an example of the techno-cultural niche and explain the importance of this example to human evolution.

Shelter, control of fire, tool making, weapons,containers,lever

c)  Identify an example of the socio-cultural niche and explain the importance of this example to human evolution.

Share symbol, personal names, share rituals share representation, group identity

5)  Provide and explain two examples for why humans are both “biologically cultural” and “culturally biological”.

This is biological cultural
Our biology depends on cooked food. Also, our brain development depends on language input. Our skin can react to cultural norms. Culturally biological:
Our life history is shaped by and for culture.
Vast genomic landscape is slowly revealing key differences.
Opportunities for phenotypic studies of great apes are becoming increasingly rare.