Answer the two parts/questions below for Ocean Life topic. 1) Summarize the main highlights and themes of the articles you read. You can use more references than the ones I provided you to help with your explanations. Please include a list of any other references you use outside of the group I gave you. 2) What things could be done to help improve the climate change problems of your topic? Give examples of methods proposed or actually used to help improve your climate change issue. Explain how your topic could impact the environment of California. Figures and tables are not included in 2 page text limitation. You can include as many figures and tables as you want. Your essays should be well written, organized and concise.
T he effort required to achieve the Paris Agreement target of limiting global warming to 1.5°C relative to the preindustrial level appears to be substantial (1). Demonstrating the benefits of moving toward the Paris Agreement’s target may encourage countries to commit more ambitious plans for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and promote voluntary actions from private sectors (1, 2). Climate change is affecting marine biodiversity and ecosystem services such as food provision, posing substantial risk to the well-being of coastal communities (3–5). Quantifying the relationship between fisheries impacts and global surface warming (and thus cumulative carbon emissions) enables us to estimate the benefits of meeting the Paris Agreement target (Fig. 1). We analyze the outputs from 19 Earth system models used in the Fifth Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that participated in the Coupled Models Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (strong mitigation) and 8.5 (high emission) scenarios (see supplementary materials). We evaluate the relationship between the projected global mean atmospheric surface warming between 1950 and 2100 and changes in oceanographic variables that drive changes in marine ecosystems (6, 7). The focus of our analysis is on the system of large marine ecosystems (fig. S2), which host more than 90% of the global catches and most of the diversity of exploited species. We find that global warming scales nearly linearly with ecosystem drivers at the sea surface averaged over all large marine ecosystems in all individual models under both RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 (6, 8) (Fig. 2; see supplementary materials)