comments please

Can you help me understand this Psychology question?

Description

Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels(American Diabetes Association.2014). Several pathogenic processes are involved in the development of diabetes. These range from autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic B cells with consequent insulin deficiency to abnormalities that result in resistance to insulin action. The basis of the abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism in diabetes is deficient action of insulin on target tissues(American Diabetes Association.2014).

Describe one population that is more susceptible and one population that is less susceptible to this illness and explain why

African American White Population

Because of the high prevalence of diabetes in the African American community, it has been suggested that African Americans maybe more susceptible to the disease compared with Whites through direct genetic propensity or unfavorable gene–environment interactions. The fact that diabetes prevalence rates among Whites exceeded those among African Americans through at least the first half of the 20th century has led to the hypothesis that modern lifestyle factors (especially those that promote obesity) may have a greater effect on African Americans than on Whites(Signorello et al., 2007).However, treating race as an etiological factor has been the subject of debate, and it has been argued that despite some genotypic delineations, race largely represents a complex mixture of behavioral, environ-mental, and social exposures. In compare-son with Whites, African Americans often are poorer, have less education, are more likely to live in distressed households and communities, are less able to access quality healthcare, and have a less favorable risk factor profile for many diseases. Because socio-economic (and associated environmental) differences between racial groups are so pervasive, attempts to isolate an effect of race will typically involve substantial confounding resulting in difficulty estimating the relative con-attributions of genetic and environmental factors. There have been several attempts to evaluate whether the disparity between African Americans and Whites about diabetes can be attributed to factors other than racial background(Signorello et al., 2007).

How stress and coping might differ between these populations. Be specific.

African Americans living with diabetes cope every day with stress from the disease itself, fear of complications secondary to diabetes, and other social factors. Among African Americans older than 20 years of age, 1 in 10 lives with type 2 diabetes, and among African American women older than age 55, rates are as high as 1 in 4. In addition to higher prevalence rates (1.8 times higher than Caucasian Americans), African Americans suffer greatly from the complications of diabetes, resulting in rates of blindness, kidney disease, and lower limb amputations that are 2 to 5 times that of Caucasian Americans. Given this context, it may be important to understand how African American adults with diabetes cope with the stress of living with diabetes(Samuel-Hodge et al ., 2008).Understanding how African Americans cope with diabetes is important to developing strategies for promoting healthful self-care behaviors and enhancing psychological and physical well-being. The relationships among coping, stress, and one’s appraisal of a stressful event or situation have been explored in a small number of studies among patients with diabetes. Only a few studies, however, specifically address the coping styles of African Americans with diabetes, and most have been qualitative research with small study samples. More generally, racial differences in the use of coping strategies have been suggested. Studies suggest that Caucasians predominately use problem-solving coping mechanisms, whereas African Americans rely more on emotion-focused or affective coping and less on active forms of coping. In the diabetes context, studies list religious activity or spirituality as prevalent coping efforts among African Americans(Samuel-Hodge et al ., 2008). Other research identifies family and individual resilience, as well as a strong value system, as inherent coping skills for African Americans. What is missing from the literature are quantitative data describing how African Americans with diabetes cope with the disease and how their coping styles relate to self-care behaviors and health-related well-being or quality of life(Samuel-Hodge et al ., 2008).

References:

American Diabetes Association.,2014) Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes Care 37(1), S81-S90. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc14-S081

Samuel-Hodge, C. D., Watkins, D. C., Rowell, K. L., & Hooten, E. G. (2008). Coping styles, well-being, and self-care behaviors among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. The Diabetes educator, 34(3), 501–510. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145721708316946

Signorello, L. B., ScD., Schlundt, D. G., PhD., Cohen, S. S., M.S., Steinwandel, M. D., B.B.A., Buchowski, M. S., PhD., McLaughlin, J. K., PhD., . . . Blot, W. J., PhD. (2007). Comparing diabetes prevalence between African Americans and whites of similar socioeconomic status. American Journal of Public Health, 97(12), 2260-7. Retrieved from https://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fdocview%2F21509.2037%3Faccountid%3D14872